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Ciudad Jardin: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard's Garden City Concept
Ebenezer Howard was a visionary urban planner who proposed the idea of Garden Cities as a way to combine the best of both urban and rural life. His concept influenced many urban developments around the world, including Ciudad Jardin in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In this article, we will explore the origin and development of Howard's Garden City idea, and how it was applied in Ciudad Jardin.
What is a Garden City
A Garden City is a planned urban settlement that aims to create a harmonious balance between nature and human society. It is designed to provide high-quality living conditions for its residents, such as affordable housing, green spaces, public services, employment opportunities, and social interaction. Howard envisioned Garden Cities as self-contained communities that would be connected by railways and surrounded by agricultural belts. He also proposed a system of land ownership and taxation that would ensure the social and economic sustainability of the Garden Cities.
How did Howard develop his idea
Howard was born in London in 1850, and witnessed the rapid urbanization and industrialization of his city. He was concerned about the social and environmental problems caused by overcrowding, pollution, poverty, and disease. He was inspired by various utopian thinkers and reformers, such as Edward Bellamy, Henry George, and William Morris. He also studied the existing examples of planned communities, such as Letchworth in England, Pullman in Chicago, and Saltaire in Yorkshire. In 1898, he published his book \"To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform\", which was later revised and renamed as \"Garden Cities of Tomorrow\" in 1902. In this book, he outlined his vision of a network of Garden Cities that would offer a peaceful alternative to the chaotic and unhealthy urban life.
How was Ciudad Jardin influenced by Howard's idea
Ciudad Jardin (Garden City) is a neighborhood in Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was founded in 1923 by a group of Argentine businessmen who were inspired by Howard's Garden City concept. They hired the British architect Barry Parker, who had previously worked on Letchworth and Hampstead Garden Suburb in England, to design the master plan for Ciudad Jardin. Parker followed Howard's principles of creating a low-density residential area with ample green spaces, public amenities, and architectural diversity. He also incorporated elements of the local culture and landscape, such as Spanish colonial style houses, native trees and plants, and winding streets. Ciudad Jardin became one of the most prestigious and attractive neighborhoods in Buenos Aires, and a model for other urban developments in Argentina and Latin America.
What is the legacy of Howard's Garden City concept
Howard's Garden City concept had a lasting impact on urban planning and design throughout the 20th century and beyond. It influenced many movements and projects that aimed to create more livable and sustainable cities, such as the Regional Planning Association of America, the New Towns in Britain, the Green Belt Movement in Kenya, and the Ecological Cities in China. It also inspired many architects and planners who adopted or adapted Howard's ideas to suit different contexts and cultures, such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Lewis Mumford, Patrick Geddes, Clarence Perry, Oscar Niemeyer, Jane Jacobs, and Jan Gehl. Howard's Garden City concept remains relevant today as a source of inspiration and guidance for addressing the challenges and opportunities of urbanization in the 21st century. aa16f39245